Hi i am back with my new article of automobile field. Now we will discuss about lead-acid battery.this article will be useful for all automobile engineering students. Its one of my hobby to guide automobile field students because i am also B.TECH (automobile) engineer.So reading my article be more familiar with automobile field. Read more about me below this article and now come to this article.
Automotive battery :-
Battery is aÂ device which converts a chemical energy in to electrical energy. In common words we can consider automotive battery as a heart of vehicle.because without heart a human life is not possible as well as vehicle can not be started without battery. Battery works on chemical is called electrolyte. Electrolyte is a mixture of sulfuric acid (H2SO4)Â and distilled water.mixture of ratio is maintained 60:40.it means 60% distilled water and 40%Â sulfuric acid is used in battery as electrolyte. Its a main part of battery. Now a days 12v and 6v batteries are used in automobile field.Â Many other parts used in battery which description is given below.
Types Of Battery :-
1 ) Dry battery :-
Now a days in two wheeler like motorcycles, scooters and mopeds usesÂ this type of battery but still some models uses wet battery also. In two wheeler both type of battery can be used.
2) Wet Battery:-
We uses this type of battery in cars, truck and other heavy duty vehicle. In this type of battery we use water as a row material so its called wet battery. Lead-acid battery is a single kind of wet battery.
Battery Terminal :-
There are two terminals are provided on outer body of battery.one is that negative and second one is positive. Terminals are working as a power supplier which supply the electrical energy to engine and provides the facility to crank the engine. But it has to be maintained by regular greasing by jelly or grease. It is made from electrical material.
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Battery Cell :-
cell is working as a small box in battery.in 12v battery there are 6 cells are provided.it means per cell voltage capacity is 2v in battery. There are two rods are kept in each cell. both are made from lead metal.one of them is working as a negative rod and other is working as a positive rod.it means total 12 rods are kept in battery. Totally chemical reactions is to be in cell.and battery cell generate the electrical energy.
Separator plates keeps each cell separate so its called separator.it makes a partition between two cell.
Battery Cover (Battery Case) :-
It protects the battery from water and dust.it is made from hard plastic material.
Cell Connector :-
It is a device which connect the cells with each other and provides the facility to give total output voltage to engine.
Vent Hole :-
There is a very small hole is provided in battery outer cover (battery case) to increase over heating of battery. This hall is also called air vent hole.
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There are two plates are kept in each battery cell. One of them is work as a positive plate and other is working as a negative plate. It heaps in a chemical process to battery.
Charging and Dis-charging Process (chemical reactions) In Battery:-
Charging Process :
During charging process lead oxide and sulfuric acid mixture makes a lead sulphate, water and hydrogen. In this process we get water and hydrogen as a auxiliary product. For charge the battery alternator devise is provided in vehicle. It converts the electrical energy in to chemical energy.
Discharging Process :
During discharging process lead sulphate and water mixture makes lead oxide, sulfuric acid and hydrogen. In this process we get sulfuric acid as a auxiliary product.
We can see that battery charging and dis-charging process is reversible to each other.
Points to be noted for maintenance of automotive battery :-
- Regularly grease the battery terminal by grease or petroleum jelly.
- When vehicle is unused for more than a week then disconnect the battery cables with terminals.
- Keep clean the air vent hole from rust and water.
- Regularly use volt meter for measuring battery voltage output.
- Regularly check alternator output.
- Regularly top up distilled water in battery cell.
- Check cable connection with terminals for its tightness.
- Regularly check specific gravity of battery by hydrometer.
- Regularly check water level and electrolyte level in battery cell.